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Complete Marijuana Training for Teachers Test

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Directions: Answer each of the items true or false.

1.   Marijuana is dried material from the cannabis plant that contains a mind-altering chemical.

2.   THC is the chemical responsible for most of the psychoactive effects in marijuana.

3.   Cannabidiol (CBD) is being studied for its potential medical effects.

4.   More US teens smoke cigarettes than marijuana.

5.   Perceived harmfulness of using marijuana is increasing among youth.

6.   Marijuana today is more potent than in the past.

7.   Marijuana can be smoked, eaten or placed on the skin for effect.

8.   A marijuana concentrate is any cannabis product refined into a more potent form.

9.   Examples of marijuana concentrates include shatter, budder and gum.

10. Cannabinoid is a strain of highly potent marijuana.

11. Plant or synthetic cannabinoids bind with endocannabinoid receptors in the brain to influence brain processes.

12. THC effects on brain cell receptors can result in altered senses, difficulty thinking, and impaired memory and learning.

13. Accidental marijuana use poisonings of children have increased five-fold in the US.

14. Nearly two-times more adolescents become dependent upon marijuana than others.

15. Marijuana use is linked to poorer mental and physical health, and less school success.

16. Marijuana has few negative effects on highway accidents.

17. Recreational marijuana is legal for 18-year-olds in several states.

18. Most information about marijuana use is accurate and evidence-informed.

19. Medical marijuana is FDA approved cannabis for medical purposes.

20. Research shows that marijuana is safe and effective for dozens of medical purposes.

21. Medical marijuana laws provide consistent guidelines for using marijuana to treat disease.

22. Youth are influenced to use marijuana by parent, peer, media, individual and environmental factors.

23. Signs of youth marijuana use include physical and behavior changes and marijuana paraphernalia.

24. There are evidence-based programs to help teachers prevent youth marijuana use.

25. Teachers and schools can play an important role in preventing marijuana use among youth.

26. Parents can help protect youth from marijuana harm by talking with them about marijuana myths.

 

©All Rights Reserved, 2017

Prevention Plus Wellness, LLC

 

Answers

1.   True. Marijuana is dried components or extracts from the Cannabis plant that contains the mind-altering chemical THC.  Known by numerous slang names, including ganja, weed, pot, dope, herb, Mary Jane, MJ, hemp and reefer, to name just a few.

2.   True.  Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary cannabinoid in the cannabis plant that is responsible for most of the psychoactive effects, or the “high,” and has some therapeutic potential.

3.   True.  Usually the second most common cannabinoid found in cannabis, that doesn’t have the psychoactive (i.e., mind-altering) effects of THC.  CBD is being studied for its potential therapeutic effects, and it acts as an antagonist lessening the psychoactive effects of THC.

4.   False.  More US teens use marijuana than smoke cigarettes.  Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug for youth and adults in the US and world.  For example, national Monitoring the Future (MTF) data show among 12th graders, 4.8% smoked cigarettes daily and 6.0% used pot daily.  The good news is that the great majority of youth (94% of 12th graders and even more younger youth) do not use marijuana daily.

5.   False.  Perceived harmfulness of using marijuana is decreasing among youth.  Monitoring the Future (MTF) data show a decrease in perceived harmfulness across all grades. Less perceived harm is linked to greater use.  For example, a JAMA Pediatrics study showed Washington state 8th & 12th graders perceived harmfulness decreased while marijuana use increased over time.

6.   True.  Today’s marijuana is more potent than that found just a few years ago.  Plant THC in the 1960’s-1970’s was usually just 2%-3%, while today it is typically over 10% with some reports of it reaching 30%, due to recent advances in growing methods.  In addition, marijuana extracts/concentrates like shatter, budder, wax and hash oil have THC levels over 80% with some reports as high as 99%.  These dramatic increases in marijuana strength may increase abuse, poisonings, dependence and other harm, especially among youth and first time users. 

7.   True.  Marijuana can be smoked, vaporized, consumed as a food, beverage, pill, or tincture, or placed on the skin using topicals.

8.   True.  A concentrate or extract is any marijuana product resulting from refining the cannabis flowers into a more potent form.

9.   False.  Marijuana concentrates include dry sieve/kief, hash/hashish, and hash oil products, including hash oil, budder, wax and shatter.  Butane Hash Oil (BHO) is hash oil or “honey oil” made with an extremely flammable butane solvent that can catch fire or explode when making marijuana concentrates.

10.  False.  Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds, of which there are approximately 100, found in the cannabis plant that upon entering the blood stream by ingestion or inhalation act upon the cannabinoid receptors found in the brain and periphery. 

11. True. Cannabinoid receptors are a class of cell membrane receptors found throughout the body.  They are part of the Endocannabinoid System involved in various physiological processes including appetite, memory, mood and pain sensation.  There are currently two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2.  Plant and synthetic cannabinoids can bind to and influence receptor actions and brain processes. 

12. True.  THC over activates certain brain cell receptors, resulting in effects such as altered senses, changes in mood, impaired body movement, difficulty with thinking and problem-solving, and impaired memory and learning.

13. True.  A JAMA Pediatrics study showed a five-fold increase in marijuana use poisonings among kids under age 10 from 2009-2015.  Annual child cases of accidental marijuana poisonings increased 34% in Colorado, a legal recreational use state, vs. 19% for the US.  Marijuana poisoning symptoms for children included lifelessness (lethargy), muscle coordination losses (ataxia), and respiratory problems which sometimes led to intensive care treatment.

14. True.  About twice as many adolescents who use marijuana become dependent upon it.  While 9% of people who start using marijuana become dependent, 17% of teens who use it do.  Plus, youth under age 18 are 4-7 times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults.  Dependence causes withdrawal symptoms making quitting difficult.  These include irritability, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, anxiety and cravings.

15. True.  Marijuana use is linked to poorer mental and physical health.  Studies show a link between chronic marijuana use and worsening or earlier onset of temporary hallucinations and paranoia, psychosis, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders.  Heavy marijuana users report poorer mental health, less physical health, lower life satisfaction, and more relationship problems.  A study in the journal Health showed reduced mental and physical health is permanent if marijuana use begins early in life.  Marijuana use is also associated with less academic success.  Studies show marijuana use, especially regular or heavy use, is associated with poorer education outcomes, e.g., grades, lower graduation rates, less self-reported academic success, and less self-reported career success.

16. False.  Studies reported by the American College of Pediatricians show marijuana use at least doubles the risk of having an automobile accident.  Low levels of marijuana and alcohol combined increase accident risk greater than either substance alone.  Driving simulation studies show a direct relationship between increases in THC and reductions in driving ability.

17. False.  Marijuana is legal for recreational use by adults only (age 21 or older) in eight states.  It is illegal and especially dangerous for a minor under age 21 to use marijuana for recreational purposes. 

18. False.  There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about marijuana use.  These include that marijuana is harmless, it is not addictive, it is safer than alcohol or cigarettes, it is good for you because it is medicine, it’s okay to use because parents did/do, it’s a good way to “chill out,” and everyone is using it.

19. False.  Marijuana has not been approved by the FDA for any medical uses.  Medical marijuana is use of the crude cannabis plant or extracts to treat a disease or symptoms. There are currently insufficient human clinical trials showing that the benefits of marijuana outweigh the risks.  THC is currently used in two pill form medicines (dronabinol & nabilone) for nausea from chemotherapy and to increase appetite for AIDS patients.  Early research suggests marijuana, or specific plant or synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., THC or CBD), may be useful for treating health conditions like pain, MS, controlling childhood seizures and opioid addiction.  Using marijuana for medical reasons increases risks for over-intoxication, marijuana and alcohol/drug interactions, psychosis, highway accidents, problems with memory, attention, decision-making and IQ, addiction, and access by and harm to children and youth.

20. False.  There is a lack of high quality research determining not only the efficacy of specific cannabinoids to treat various diseases/symptoms, but also if they are better or less expensive than existing treatments and if they are safe.  Any decision to use medical marijuana, particularly in its plant and extract forms, must be weighed against the potential acute and chronic health and safety risks, and potential secondary harm to youth through increased access and pro-marijuana use beliefs and norms.  Medical marijuana does not have controls for purity, dosage, side-effects, safety, drug interactions, and efficacy as prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs.  Pro-marijuana groups promote smoking or eating marijuana for treating dozens of unapproved medical/health issues. 

21. False.  State laws differ on which medical conditions can be treated with marijuana.  Federal law prohibits prescriptions, so medical approval is a “referral” or “recommendation.”  Federal law lists marijuana a Schedule 1 drug with no medical benefits and high risk for harm.  At the current time, laws legalizing medical marijuana use are ahead of our scientific knowledge of specific cannabinoid efficacy, safety, dosing, side-effects and contraindications.

22. True.  Youth are influenced to use marijuana by various factors.  These include parent modeling, communication, expectations and monitoring, peer modeling and approval, youth access to media advertisements and images, individual factors like perceived harmfulness beliefs, norms, self-identity, self-efficacy and healthy habits, and environmental access to marijuana. 

23. True.  Signs that your youth may be using marijuana include physical changes like bloodshot eyes, fast heart rate, feeling sleepy or lethargic, lack of coordination, increased cravings for snacks, and dilated (large) pupils.  Behavior changes can include confusion and lack of focus, unusually talkative, dropping grades or lack of motivation, misjudging time and secretiveness.  Marijuana paraphernalia and environmental signs can include pipes, shredded leafy debris or seeds, cigarette rolling papers, very small bottles of oil, small metal clips, Visine, incense and a skunky smell. 

24. True.  Youth marijuana use can be effectively prevented and treated.  Evidence-based marijuana prevention programs can be found in the Updated Inventory of Programs for the Prevention and Treatment of Youth Cannabis Use.  The inventory and a report are available at: http://wsipp.wa.gov/Reports/599.  Evidence-based brief prevention with wellness programs include the SPORT Prevention Plus Wellness for youth, and InShape Prevention Plus Wellness for college-aged young adults: http://preventionpluswellness.com

25. True.  Teachers and schools can play an important role in preventing marijuana use among youth.  They can do this by communicating non-use expectations to youth, discussing healthy behavior alternatives, describing marijuana myths, having students complete healthy habit goal plans, monitoring youth for signs of use, discussing school drug policies, staying informed about the latest marijuana research, laws and news, providing marijuana media literacy education, presenting evidence-informed information, educating parents and the community on how they can protect children and adults, and intervening if students are suspected of using marijuana.

26. True.  Parents can help protect youth from marijuana harm by talking with them about marijuana myths, setting clear non-use expectations, locking-up marijuana at home, correcting inaccurate norms that everyone is using, promoting youth healthy habits and pro-social activities, helping youth set self-improvement goals, using a home contract to improve communication if necessary, being a positive role model by not using in front of youth, monitoring your youth’s friends and whereabouts, and never glamorizing or promoting marijuana, alcohol or other drugs in front of your youth.    

 

©All Rights Reserved, 2017

Prevention Plus Wellness, LLC